Tag Archives: english

Compelling Drama (Macbeth)

Macbeth blood

Last class Friday evening isn’t the most productive time to have Leaving Cert English, but we did start looking at the question “Macbeth contains many scenes of compelling drama” – discuss.

Compelling means “captivating” “irresistible” “commanding attention” –  in other words, you feel like you can’t look away. So which scenes pique our interest, demand our absolute attention, suck us in and make us perch on the edge of our seats or weep uncontrollably?

If your answer is “none, it’s a shite play” then stop reading now. Go have a cup of tea and know that I am trying my best not to judge you for your failure to appreciate the genius of Shakespeare.

If your answer is “hmm, I’m not sure” or even better “I know, I know! Pick me!“, by all means read on.

I had earlier googled a couple of scenes I think are particularly compelling in the play but I’ve since revised this list in my head to include some new ones:

1. Opening scene:

This is basically your classic horror movie opening. There’s “thunder, lightening..rain” & a looming battle, all introduced to us by a gang of hideous witches. Scarier, granted, for a superstitious Shakespearean audience than for us – after all, they lived in the era of the inquisition & counted burning witches at the stake as one of their top viewing passtimes of a Saturday! These evil creatures “hover through fog & filthy air” but this is no innocent game of quidditch; they are planning some serious mayhem! They plant the notion that they will meet Macbeth upon the heath which rouses our curiosity. This is a compelling start, particularly for those who are happy to enter the space that all theatre demands – the “willing suspension of disbelief“.

However, if the idea of witches is enough to make you giggle, you may want to scratch this one off your list of compelling scenes in Macbeth.

2. Macbeth’s soliloquy where he contemplates killing Duncan

I wanted to find a version of this which was convincing but not so over-the-top dramatic that it makes you roll your eyes. I failed. I’m plonking this one here so you get a sense of the drama of the moment but imho, this guy has overdone it. If he toned it down, made it less hand-on-heart-sincere, and more like a slightly (as opposed to completely) unhinged guy talking to himself out loud, it would be more to my taste!

[youtube_sc url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JcI_xtsiUps]

This soliloquy is tense and compelling and rather like listening in on someone in the confessional box. Here is this guy who we’ve been told is “full of the milk of human kindness” battling with his conscience and confiding his innermost thoughts and fears in us. He examines in arrestingly honest terms the depth of his desire, admitting that if he could do it and get away with it on earth he’d “jump the life to come“. Imagine wanting something so badly you’d give up the prospect of eternal life to have it? He also accepts that committing this crime of regicide would be utterly wrong, as “this Duncan hath borne his faculties so meek, hath been so clear in his great office that the angels will plead out trumpet tongued against the deep damnation of his taking off“. This image of angels trumpeting the alarm if Duncan is murdered is so vivid that we’re not surprised when he concludes that he can’t get way with it. Picturing the reaction to the crime as angels “blow the horrid deed in every eye that tears would drown the wind”  is enough to make him reconsider.

3. Lady Macbeth’s manipulation of her husband

[youtube_sc url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fe5uRWnzUig]

I defy anyone to watch this and not think “what a bitch!”. Even if afterwards we factor in her determination to help her husband fulfil his potential and partially excuse her behaviour, when you first see how vicious and determined and manipulative she is in this scene you cannot help but be shocked and horrified and kind of in awe of her complete and utter ruthlessness. If I was Macbeth I’m pretty sure I wouldn’t be able to withstand being called effeminate & a coward & disloyal & a liar! Her best line here – the most compelling & shocking line of the play so far if you ask me – is where she proclaims ““I have given suck, and know how tender ’tis to love the babe that milks me – I would, while it was smiling in my face, have plucked my nipple from his boneless gums and dashed his brains out, had I so sworn as you have done to this” Ouch! She’d apparently kill her own child before she’d break a promise to her husband! This woman is a genius at emotional and psychological manipulation. The cow!

4. The Banquet Scene

[youtube_sc url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AaIfPfZ7C5s]

Why is this compelling? Well, because this is supposed to be the greatest moment of his life – the Banquet to celebrate his coronation as King. It’s what he’s dreamed of and hoped for and even, ultimately, killed for. And now here he is and instead of honour and glory, there are blood-soaked killers at the door and the ghost of the man he just had murdered appears before him, also covered in blood, haunting him, accusing him. “Never shake thy gory locks at me” Macbeth screams at thin air. Talk about awkward! God love his poor wife trying to keep the party going…

Poor Macbeth! When what you expect turns out to be the complete opposite of what actually happens, this is called dramatic irony, caused by a reversal of expectations. [If you’re not sure that you understand irony, and for the best explanation of irony I’ve ever seen, click on this link]. In the case of Macbeth, it’s also poetic justice; poetic because he deserves to suffer, rather than celebrate, as he settles onto the throne that should never rightfully have been his. He doesn’t belong in this role so it’s fitting that he never manages to fit the role either!

No-one else in the room can see Banquo’s ghost so either Macbeth is insane or those who return from the dead only appear to those they wish to communicate with. Either way, it’s pretty awkward for the assembled guests who try not to stare and probably look at their feet, their hands, their plates – anywhere but at their psychotic newly crowned King who’s acting like a total lunatic.

Is it any surprise that the rumours about Macbeth are openly discussed in the scenes which immediately follow the banquet? I doubt many of the nobles liked him anyway – he’s been spying on them (“there’s not one of them but in his house I keep a servant fee’d“) so they may have been staying quiet up to this point out of fear, but now that he’s been publicly humiliated and one of their own – Banquo – has been murdered, they’re not likely to put up with him for too much longer. The first chance they get, they’ll turn on him.

This scene is utterly compelling for the audience because we the audience now feel that his downfall is inevitable. Everyone suspects him, so it’s surely only a matter of time before he is openly challenged and defeated! Now that’s compelling drama. We just sitting in the audience waiting to see how and when his downfall will occur. If we’re secretly enjoying his misery, the feeling we’re experiencing is schadenfreude. Watch this video for an explanation of what this word means:

[youtube_sc url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=55fzXL3uc1s]

5. The murder of Lady Macduff & her children

This clip has a bit of a lip sync problem but I think it captures the innocence of the victims quite well.

[youtube_sc url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x8X5TR8768c]

There are a couple of things worth nothing here. This is the first time we have witnessed the murder of innocent women and children in the play. Banquo may have been innocent of any wrong-doing, but he did represent a threat to Macbeth. Here we see the complete disintegration of any remaining morality in Macbeth. He’s willing to wipe out entire families simply because the head of the household has not attended his coronation banquet. As an audience we also cringe in horror at the sadism of the killers. Who does this? Who makes a mother watch while her child’s throat is slit? This is the moment where we really question our allegiance and start to hope Macbeth gets caught. This scene also provides Macduff with a deeply personal motive for going after Macbeth (his political motive was already quite strong, evident when he lamented “bleed, bleed, poor country“) and this is turn will create even more poetic justice when Macduff finally confronts Macbeth.

6. Lady Macbeth’s sleepwalking scene

[youtube_sc url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Eb2t-fXD8E]

Do I need to explain why it’s compelling drama to watch Lady Macbeth disintegrate, unconsciously revealing her innermost secrets, torn apart by remorse, ravaged by guilt and caught in the grip of a hideous O.C.D as she feverishly attempts to scrub out the “damned spot” which has become an inescapable reminder of the evil which she earlier invited into her life? Here is dramatic irony at it’s most dramatic as we witness the completion of her transformation from arrogant architect of evil (“a little water clears us of this deed“) to but a tragic shadow of her former self (“all the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand“).

7. Macbeth’s soliloquy “Out Out”

[youtube_sc url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v8t6Qb5sZXo]

So here is the man who believed that if only he could become King and get away with it, all his worldly ambitions would be achieved and he would live happily ever after. Now, he’s telling us that life is a farce, a joke, a meaningless “tale told by an idiot“.  The depth of his despair, the power of his words, the suicidal intention behind them and the fact that he realises too late that it was all for nought all make this a compelling speech but most of all, it is the fact that it is delivered immediately after he receives news of his wife’s death – this is what makes this scene so awful. His “dearest partner of greatness”. the woman he would rather kill for than disappoint, is dead, and he is so far gone, so filled with despair, that he reacts not with tears or anguish or denial but with calm acceptance and an acknowledgement that there was nothing left for them to live for anyway. How the mighty have fallen…

Of course, when the tragedy is over and he’s dead and she’s dead and we’re still alive, we also experience the wonderful catharsis* of knowing that human beings really can f*ck up really badly, but hey, it wasn’t us, we’re fine, so off we go into the night, determined not to kill anyone on our way home, cause if we didn’t know it before, we all know it now – that can only end badly!!!


*Catharsis =

Have you ever wondered why you like horror movies? Or violent video games (even though you’re not a violent person in real life)? Or Eastenders (it’s so bloody miserable and depressing all the time)? Or books that make you cry (I’m not a fan of “PS I Love You” but many of my – female – students love it)?

Some people suggest that we like all of these things because they’re not real. We can experience scary things in a fantasy way without putting our ‘real’ self in danger -the fear/rage/depression/sadness leave us as soon as we switch our brains off from the movie/video game/telly/book.

This process of temporarily experiencing negative emotions and then ‘cleansing’ them is known as catharsis. We enjoy this process because it helps us to lose ourselves in someone else’s life for a while (if our own life sucks) or to appreciate how good we have it (if our own life is better than what we’ve just watched) when the movie/video game/telly/book ends.


As an aside, this video popped up while I was searching youtube. I’ve always had a bit of a thing for Ethan Hawke and now this is making me want to go see it on Broadway… wishful thinking as it finished on the 12th January. Wish I’d googled it before Christmas, you never know what Santa might have delivered!

[youtube_sc url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c9rfd1R7AmA]

J.C. Consultation Conference

Get a cup of coffee.

This is even longer than the last post on the new Junior Cycle English specification!!!

Heaney conference

We began with Seamus. What better way to begin, with a room full of English teachers. Roy Foster (who did a beautiful job of remembering Seamus Heaney in the Guardian) inspired a recitation of “Clearances” by Declan O’Neill and for a moment we were all united by our love of language, of beauty, of genius.

Finian O’Shea, the keynote speaker, was wonderfully engaging, even when the questions he posed were challenging and sometimes downright scary. What do we do in an era when reading is in decline yet the literacy demands we face daily are ever on the increase? My mind immediately jumped to this article my husband John showed me recently (albeit UK based) stating that only 13% of parents read bedtime stories to their children every night. Only today our first year students completed a survey on their reading habits (we’re gathering baseline data for our Literacy and Numeracy Strategy) and a whooping 53% of them “rarely or never” read outside of school work. It’s enough to make a grown woman cry, particularly if that grown woman is an English teacher. However, it pays to remember that despite being beaten over the head repeatedly with Ireland’s poor showing in the most recent PISA rankings (as though we the English teachers were personally responsible for the ever diminishing prevalence of reading as a leisure activity in our society), not everyone agrees that PISA offers us anything useful at all, except a stick to beat teachers with.

Anyway, back to the conference. Finian offered the following list as the things we need to be thinking about as English teachers:

1. Literacy skills – explicitly teaching vocab. Understanding not just spellings. Checking for comprehension.

2. Texts – examine the meaning of the word ‘text’. Lots of information comes at us these days in a non-text based format. We NEED to engage with the digital space, to expose them and us to multimodal texts. To interrogate them.

3. Reading and writing skills – we’ve been fighting this battle for a long time fellow English teachers. Now is not the time to give up. Just gotta keep on keeping on.

4. Discussion and presentation skills – hence the new focus on oral skills in the specification for Junior Cycle.

5. Listening and viewing skills – this links in to the idea that “texts” now refers to more than just the printed word!

6. Critical thinking skills – it always comes back to learning to think and learning to learn.

He also spoke about the HOW of making this happen – the student as an active agent, learning as a developmental process, the importance of drawing on prior knowledge and experience, environmental based and local learning opportunities, guided activity, discovery and practice, gradually removing reliance upon the teacher, collaboration and cross-curricular links. This is a journey I’m on at the moment, day by day trying to be less the sage on the stage and more guide on the side for my pupils. I can tell you from experience, it’s a bloody steep learning curve, a kind of two steps forward, one step back marathon rather than an overnight transformation, but one which is bearing fruit, for the most part.

For further reading Finian suggested I read it but I don’t get it” by Chris Towani and “Babies Need Books” by Dorothy Butler (out of print). Given the stats above about how few parents read to their children every night, I think it might be the parents not the English teachers who need to read this latter gem!!!

The workshops part of the day included:

  • Planning for First Year English
  • Responding to poetry in the First Year Classroom
  • School Based Assessment and Moderation
  • Oral Language in the Classroom
  • Junior Cycle English in the Digital Age

Each of us signed up for two workshops and attended one before lunch and one after lunch. I enjoyed the “Oral Language in the Classroom” session but to be honest it felt more like in-service than consultation. Yes, we could all see the value of using multimodal texts in our classrooms, and the example of the “RTE Doc on One” series was welcomed by everyone in the room as a good starting point when seeking out texts.

JC conference

But we didn’t really get clarity around what the “oral presentation” might look like, nor did we get answers to what we felt were quite pressing questions:

  • can shy or weak students record their presentation or does it have to be delivered ‘live’ in front of peers?
  • can presentations be digital?
  • are group projects acceptable?
  • can oral interviews be used for assessment purposes?

For example, if students wanted to make their own collaborative radio documentary, could this be used for assessment purposes, even though each student must be assessed individually? The specification seems to contradict itself in that there is a focus on collaboration within the JC framework yet for assessment purposes each individual seems to have to offer work for assessment in a stand alone capacity.

Due to the phrasing of the specification, there is a danger that teachers will narrowly interpret the oral language presentation as only valuing students’ ability to stand in a room and speak. We wanted an answer to the question “is that all that counts?”. We wanted to know if pre-recorded (or re-recorded until they got it right) digital segments (podcasts and films and videos and poetry readings) would be acceptable but we got no definitive answers.

A kind interpretation says that’s because the consultation process was still open. A kind interpretation says they don’t want to be too prescriptive because that goes against the very spirit of the new Junior Cycle.

A more cynical view is that we got no answers because they simply don’t know – or worse still, they’ll leave it up to individual schools to decide for themselves! Then watch as schools end up competing with each other! Not good. Yet I want to have the freedom to make decisions locally based on what’s happening in my school and in my locality. I guess I can’t have it both ways!

So my final thoughts on the oral dimension of the new Junior Cycle spec are as follows: if I can do it my way, this part of the new spec really excites me but if the spec is left as it’s written, I have visions of classes up and down the country sitting listening to presentations for weeks on end as each one is delivered in real time to a restless, bored audience by disgruntled surly teens. God spare us this hell I say!

Lunch was a delightful encounter with familiar faces from INOTE – Fiona Kirwan and Mary Farrell and Roisin Moran and a lively chat with a few teachers and Junior Cycle Support Service peeps I hadn’t met before. As usual I talked way too much and I’m sure at least a few of them left the table thinking ‘thank God I don’t work with her, she never shuts up!’ but I’ve long since made peace with my verbal diarrhoea so what harm!

Also, if my comment about familiar faces above seems really cliquish, let me assure you I didn’t even join INOTE until 2011, it’s just once you chat to a fellow English teacher at a few events, most of the time it very rapidly feels like you’ve known them your entire life. We’re cut out of the same cloth us lot! To join the conversation (it’s not a clique, seriously. I’d never have gotten in if it was!) just sign up here: http://www.inote.ie/?page_id=371 and you’re in. The conference is coming up on the 19th October and as far as I know there are still a couple of places still available (schedule of events and bookings are available here:  http://www.eckilkenny.ie/inote/). Better still, join the closed facebook group for brilliant exchanges of ideas and resources. It’s got 226 members and is growing all the time!

After that I met up with some of my twitterati buddies @fboss and @levdavidovic and poor Fintan couldn’t get rid of me for the rest of the day!


We headed off to the workshop on Junior Cycle English in the Digital Age and I was delighted to meet more of my virtual twitter friends Kevin Cahill (who was giving the workshop) and Eoghan Evesson. Kevin gave an engaging, passionate and robust overview of where we’re at with tech and asked us to consider this in groups and suggest where we might go next. He’s a great public speaker, a fired-up educator and if I was back in school, I’d want to be in his class.

Again, if this sounds like a cult, I apologise, but twitter has offered me accessible and invaluable CPD from the comfort of my own couch for the past two years and I would truly be lost without it. If you want to lurk but not contribute, just go to www.twitter.com/search and type in #edchatie (it stands for ‘education chat in Ireland’) to see why I’m raving about it so much. I also got to sit with Patricia Maguire, who I’ve never met before, but she’s active on the INOTE facebook page and blew us all away last year when she described a project her students did to recreate Romeo & Juliet in real time on facebook. I was impressed with her virtual self already, and her real self is even more impressive, in a very modest, self-effacing way. She seems to do amazing things with tech in her classroom. To be honest, I just really wanted more time with these people to see what they’re doing in their classrooms and how they’re doing it. Teachers teaching teachers offers amazing scope for professional development and the teachers I met were the best part of my day.

Nonetheless, there are still massive problems to be overcome with integrating digital skills and using digital media in our classrooms. Our schools are under resourced when it comes to tech so parents are being asked to step into the breach, again; our teachers are crying out for more training; our equipment is in many cases falling apart and, almost comically in this day and age, we do not have IT technicians in our schools. We have a secretary and a caretaker but we do not have an IT technician in every secondary school in the country. Think about this for a second. What other organisation with in excess of 400 individuals in situ – in some cases 600, 800, 1000, 1,200 – is expected to just muddle through when the tech breaks down. It’s not comical, it’s tragic and insulting to our profession. Only the day after the conference my projector threw a wobbly and suddenly I was facing the prospect of teaching without my extra limb for who knows how long before the damn thing would be fixed again. We have a guy who comes in once a week. Praise be to Jesus he was in today and managed to fix it but if he had needed parts I’d have been at least another week teaching back in the stone age. I know this sounds like whinging; that’s because it is whinging. But it is legitimate whinging! Don’t ask me to integrate tech in my classroom and yet leave me wallowing in conditions that militate against my every effort. I need more devices, I need wifi in my classroom… I could go on but I won’t. Because I know what you’ll say – there is no money. Sigh!

One really positive aspect of the afternoon session (and there were loads – this was my favourite part of the day!) was that Kevin was able to give us more clarity around the oral presentation aspect of the new JC spec – basically, he asked if digital formats would be accepted and the answer, my friends, is YES!!!! Whoop, whoop! I almost hollered with relief at this news!!! Assessments can be digital – well hallelujah and amen to that 😉

The plenary session provided an overview of the consultation process thus far. I was going to offer a link so you could read the short and succinct interim report, but it’s disappeared off the juniorcycle.ie website, so, oh well! Never mind!

Basically Hal O’Neill said the draft specification wanted to assist teachers in making decisions about students’ progress which is why they had included annotated examples in the draft specification. I personally find the annotated examples a bit irritating and patronising. English teachers don’t have a major issue distinguishing between grades when assessing students work. We do it all the time. We know what an A looks like, and a B, and a C and a D. Our issue is not professional incompetence. Our issue is with extremely large class sizes and lack of time to offer the kind of individualised and focused feedback that everyone who knows anything about learning knows makes all the difference.

If you’ll humour me for a moment let me quote from my original response to the draft specification:

“to give each pupil I teach 10 minutes individualised feedback a week:

200 x 10 = 2000 mins or 33hrs 20 mins

Experienced teachers know that you can’t really offer this during class time – once the roll is done and an activity started (and this is assuming you don’t do any whole class teaching) you’d get around to 3 pupils maximum. That means neglecting 90% of the class while giving your attention to 10%. To assess and offer feedback on one piece of work would then take up ten class periods but to cover the curriculum you’d need to have long moved on from whatever that exercise was before ten classes had passed.

So my job starts to look like this:

22 hrs class teaching,
33 hrs corrections (but in reality, senior cycle essays take about 25mins to correct not 10 mins)
12 hrs class preparation (many weeks this is a vast underestimation)
5 hrs subject department/croke park/school self evaluation/literacy and numeracy/ICT
3 hrs extra-curricular
= 75 hour working week
= hospitalisation.

Anyone who knows anything about me at all knows that I am a complete workaholic, but even I know this isn’t healthy”.

I get really fed up when people suggest, either directly or indirectly, that it’s some kind of laziness on my part when I raise this issue or that my reluctance to assess my own pupils is somehow evidence that I’m not really ‘professional’ at what I do. That my concerns about paperwork are unfounded; that my anxiety over assessing neighbours kids and colleagues kids and maybe even some day my own kid is evidence that I’m some kind of luddite.

They do this in other countries you know, I keep being told.

I’m sure they do.

But this isn’t other countries.

This is Ireland.

We are very insular and very local and have a long history of bribery and corruption and brown envelopes and a pushy middle class who don’t care what they have to do to get ahead…

I’m not unprofessional.

I’ll tell you what I am.

I’m scared.

I’m scared my job will start to look like this: http://theuphillstruggle.wordpress.com/2013/04/21/an-open-letter-to-michael-gove/

I’m scared I’ll get so fed up I’ll want to leave teaching, the only thing I’ve ever really wanted to do. And I know change is hard and I know change is inevitable and some of the change I really really see the value of and  I want to be at the centre of making the learning experience better for my students. But I wish we had more teachers, smaller classes, more resources, more training, more time. That’s not the fault of the NCCA. I like a lot of their vision for the future and I really like the trouble they’ve taken to offer real and meaningful consultation. Just this evening I was online for the webinar they organised to – yet again – hear the thoughts of English teachers on what we like and what we want clarified and what our concerns are.

It’s fair to say at this point if you’re an English teacher and you haven’t had any input into the draft specification for English, it’s your own bloody fault because you’ve had more than enough opportunities over the last few months. Maybe not in person – I know lots and lots of teachers who were irate not to get a place at the conference – but certainly online.

Speaking of which, when I arrived at the conference I had a few minutes of thinking I’d have to turn on my tail and leave, as I was a last minute addition to the list of attendees. They had no record of me at the desk and I had to pull out my email and prove that I wasn’t just a total chancer looking for a day off work. Instead of a printed name tag I had this little number but I was just grateful they let me in:



As I was taking my leave of Fred and Fintan, I got to speak briefly to Anne Looney. She’d read my feedback (I felt reassured that they’re listening!) and I joked about sneaking in, with my fake looking badge on show for all the world to see. Anyway, she didn’t kick me out or anything, she said she’d reserved a few places all along for teachers who had offered particularly detailed feedback on the draft specification. I guess mine was just so late arriving I only got in by the skin of my teeth.

By hook or by crook, I was glad I got to go even though it meant an insane week: Croke Park hours Monday evening; work then Dublin Weds/Thurs; work and funeral in Ennis Friday; and back to the big smoke on Saturday for TEDxDublin. No wonder it’s taken me this long to process the day…


I’m putting this here because the comments section won’t allow me to embed photos:

To clarify: I taught for eight years without using any edtech. I like to think I did a pretty decent job. I would never in a million years judge another teacher’s methods, nor consider them a luddite or a dinosaur for not using tech.
However, if I’ve moved on and now prefer a blended approach, the system should keep up with me, not hold me back. If other teachers want to learn more, the system should support that, not hold them back.
Also, before some bizarre misconception around my relationship with books somehow becomes fact, I worked in The Best Bookshop in Ireland whilst in university and learned as much if not more about books in the shop as I did in college:
This is my study:


And yesterday these arrived for our book club:

Book club

Love of tech and love of books compliment each other beautifully. They are not mutually exclusive.



Draft Spec for Junior Cycle English


Warning: this is a LONG post… get a cup of coffee before you sit down to read it!


I’ve been visiting and re-visiting the draft spec for the new Junior Cycle English on and off all summer. To be honest I’m embarrassed it’s taken me this long to put virtual pen to virtual paper (aka typing a blog!) to gather my thoughts and pinpoint my response to it all.

First, let me say this. I don’t believe that exams are the best way to assess creative writing. Forcing students into a stuffy room with a ticking clock to respond to random topics chosen by some nameless faceless entity – I’m sorry, that’s just stupid! Nothing I’ve ever written that I’m proud of has been produced under these conditions.

All writers, bloggers, journalists, poets and teachers draft, edit, redraft and refine before submitting their work for public scrutiny. Sometimes the words flow, sometimes they don’t. But most of us have at least occasionally known the experience Hemingway spoke of when he said “there is nothing to writing. All you do is sit down at a typewriter and bleed”.

Of course, we don’t believe in typewriters in our exam system! Nope, your spelling mistakes, messy handwriting and that entire first paragraph which produced a little bit of vomit in your mouth when you read back over it (so then you crossed it out) must all remain in situ to be scrutinised by some other nameless faceless entity (apologies to those who correct!) whose job it is to judge not your ability to write well, but your ability to write well under these highly unnatural, creativity-killing, exam conditions. I have seen too many talented students produce incredible creative writing when given the space to choose their own topic and the time to breathe life into it, to accept the status quo. If editing and drafting to refine your work is good enough for the real world, it should be good enough for our education system.

That’s not to say that I don’t have real and pressing concerns about plagiarism. I do. But worrying about potential abuses by a minority is no justification for sticking to a status quo that stinks. I also have real and pressing concerns about the role of the teacher in assessing his/her own pupils, particularly about the damage this could do to the teacher-pupil relationship. I see myself as mentor and advocate not judge and jury and so do my students (but more on how I think this could play out later).

So enough editorial. What do I make of the draft spec for the new Junior Cycle English?


I really like the “why” of the new Junior Cycle. Aspirational it may be, maybe even impossible to achieve at all times, in all places, but the notion of placing students “at the centre of the educational experience” sings to me. It forces me once again to grapple with the tension between the roles teachers now play: sage on stage when necessary, guide on the side as often as possible. And of course we should all aspire to offer “experiences that are engaging and enjoyable”. Now before you jump on me, I’m not suggesting for a second that I achieve this even 50% of the time (and let’s face it, what one students enjoys, another finds ‘boring!’) but it’s a good goalpost to aim for.

If I had written this document, I would have added that educational experiences should also be challenging. I don’t buy into the notion of simply entertaining students. I want their brains to fry and fizzle every day, not float along in some haze of airy fairy ‘look how much we’re enjoying it’ new age new pedagogy nonsense. Was it hard? Good. Then you’re probably learning! (see zone of proximal development – Vygotsky).

In terms of my issues with this section, one sentence jumps off the page at me: “where possible, provide opportunities for [students] to develop their abilities and talents in the areas of creativity, innovation and enterprise”. The very phrase “where possible” [my emphasis] completely lets us as teachers off the hook. If we begin with the assumption that developing students’ creativity is somehow not really our domain or if we think of it as some kind of profoundly difficult minority activity, then we’re hardly going to embrace it wholesale. Yet “being creative” is one of the six key skills of the new Junior Cycle and, more importantly, is a fundamental contributor to human health, happiness and personal satisfaction for our entire lives. Don’t let us off the hook on this one. Make us make it happen! In fact, strike that. English teachers are already doing this wholesale – creative writing is 50% of our students coursework as it is! We just need to consciously devote the same amount of teaching time to it as we do to the critical analysis of literature side of things.

A second aspect of the rationale jarred for me. On the one hand we have the statement “respect is shown for students’… literacy practices outside of school” yet a couple of sentences later we get the factually inaccurate statement “students read literature with insight and imagination not only in class but privately as well”. I’m sorry to have to break this to the authors, but saying something is true does not make it so. Yes, there are students who enjoy reading as a leisure activity. And yes, there’s another group of students who read when the teacher tells them to in class and/or for homework. But all the research says there’s a growing number of students who never ever read. Their “literacy practices outside of school” – not reading, not valuing reading, in some cases not even having access to books – are what’s causing the slump in literacy we’re seeing every day in our classrooms. As teachers, we can request that management timetable a reading class once a week (but let’s face it, the timetable is already bulging at the seams and will 40mins a week really make up for a lifetime of not reading?), we can model good behaviour, we can suggest books for students to read and we can generally put across the message that reading for pleasure is a normal and enjoyable activity. But please stop holding us responsible for things which are completely beyond our control i.e. “students’ literacy practices outside of school”. Of course we’d all love it if every student that passed through our care had a deep abiding love of reading, and would select it above all other leisure activities given a choice. But let’s get real. That’s never going to happen. We can do our best, but we cannot perform miracles and we certainly shouldn’t be making kids feel dumb if reading isn’t one of their top five hobbies. How would that constitute having respect for their literacy practices outside of school?

Apologies. Rant Over!

As for the aims, I really like their clarity and their use of metacognitive language – create, control, critique, find, use, synthesise, evaluate and communicate. As a teacher who’s obsessed with the potential of technology in education, I’m also pleased to see “multimodal” texts included. However, I would like to see some mention of writing for an audience beyond the classroom. In my experience, once there is an audience that’s crucially not just the teacher, whether it’s peers (this is highlighted as vital good practice on page 20) or in competitions or online, engagement, motivation and quality all improve dramatically. Obviously we need to offer choice here – no-one, student or teacher, wants to be forced to share or publish, nor should they be. But feedback is crucial to improvement and like it or not the teacher is limited in how much individualised feedback they can offer. Ponder for a moment that a primary school teacher is responsible for giving feedback to somewhere in the region of 25 – 33 students. Meanwhile most secondary school teachers prepare, deliver and respond to the needs of perhaps 200 – 250 students. And as we all know, these numbers are on the up up up! Every time I hear the phrase ‘pupil-teacher’ ratio I want to vomit because I know the more students I teach, the less time I have for each of them. Yet despite the ravaging the education system has endured since the recession began, unbelievably we’re being told to brace ourselves for more.

I also really like the grid which connects the statements of learning to what we actually do in the classroom. And once again, because of my personal bias towards edtech, I like both the statement “the students uses technology to learn, communicate, work and think collaboratively and creatively in a responsible and ethical manner” and the relevant learning “students will engage critically with texts in a wide range of formats. They will explore the potential to create texts that are rich in variety of content and presentation”. However, I think to really embed the idea of online texts and digital creation they should amend the relevant learning statement to say “in a wide range of formats, including multimodal digital texts” and should specify that students “create digital texts”. Make us make it happen! (of course, access to computer labs, or tablets, or whatever is still a major issue and I don’t deny this for a second. We can’t make it happen if we don’t have the tools!).

Secondly, if you really want teachers to embrace the digital, for the love of all that is sacred, give us training. Let us use Croke Park hours for CPD and yes that will mean not all teachers being in the same place at the same time doing the same thing. But for God’s sake, a little bit of trust wouldn’t go astray here (yes, I know it’s the Minister I should be ranting at, not you guys…).

The literacy and numeracy grid on page 9 is all aspiration, rather than fact. I don’t want to come across as one half of Statler and Waldorf from the Muppet Show with my curmudgeonly grumblings but let’s look at this statement for a moment: “[Students] will develop their reading skills by encountering a variety of texts which they learn to read with fluency, understanding and competence using a broad range of comprehension strategies”. First of all, simply providing a wide variety of texts does not create the ability to read with fluency, understanding and competence. (cf. my little rant above about students literacy practices outside of school). Secondly, no matter how broad the range of comprehension strategies, comprehension itself is the product of complex interwoven factors. I’m not saying improvement isn’t possible, of course it is. If I didn’t believe in progress for all students I wouldn’t be a teacher. But no matter what we do as English teachers we will always encounter a wide range of reading abilities in our students. This is just a sad fact of life and beating us over the head with PISA statistics very couple of years won’t change it. I guess, the word I ignored which I need to zoom in on here is “develop”. They all get the opportunity to “develop”. That’s ultimately our goal. See, I told you I wouldn’t morph into Statler and Waldorf!

On page 10 of the document (only 48 more to go!) the links between ‘key skills’ and ‘learning activity’ are too narrowly defined. Take, for example, “being creative”. This is translated into “students will engage frequently with literary narratives and will compose imaginative narratives of their own”. First of all, reading literature is reading literature. It’s creative in the sense that the brain must translate the words into pictures and sounds and emotional experiences but you don’t actually create anything yourself. You are the beneficiary of the writer’s creativity. Secondly, why define being creative as “students will compose imaginative narratives of their own”. I know we’re getting into semantics here, but narrative is broadly taken to mean “story” and hence at a glance this implies that all students simply need to write short stories at some point in Junior Cycle and that’s the box ticked for creativity. I’ve had students collaboratively write film scripts, and then film and edit them; I’ve had them create sets and props and costumes and perform scenes from their play; I’ve had them write poetry and songs and create how-to videos and advertisements. They’ve created facebook pages for characters in their novels; they’ve written and created an episode of the Jeremy Kyle show where Juliet and Lord and Lady Capulet examine the problems in their parent-child relationship. After these wildly creative, think outside of the box experiences, they write much more fluidly, intelligently and creatively about the characters and their relationships. Being creative is too narrowly defined here.

The creative process is also aided hugely by collaboration, but again, this fails to come across in the draft specification. Working with others as a key skill is narrowly defined as sitting at a table having a chat “students will collaborate with others to explore and discuss views on a range of texts and contexts”. Sigh! If we’re really going to exploit the value of collaboration, get them creating in groups. Make something new, instead of always simply critiquing something that already exists. For me personally, this is possibly the most disappointing element of the draft specification for Junior Cycle English, that it has such a weak sense of the possibilities collaboration amongst students creates. And as English is the first subject (and I absolutely recognise that this makes the job of the authors of this specification really really difficult) if we don’t grasp it here, it won’t follow through to the other subjects when their time comes. If you want exemplars, look to the guys in Bridge21 and Fighting Words. They’ll show us the way, they’ve been there already, they know the path. I also think the guys at Fighting Words (but I don’t presume to speak for them) would fundamentally disagree with the statement on page 22 that the writing process is necessarily always a “private, pleasurable and purposeful activity”. You can make it more pleasurable and purposeful by getting students to collaborate. Of course writing is very often a private activity but it does not have to be, particularly at the beginning of the process when sparking ideas and finding inspiration are so vital.


A sub-set of learning outcomes for First Year is a great idea (p11). The inclusion of multimodal texts (p12) and the recognition that the term “text” applies to more than communication in written formats brought a big smile to my face. The expectation that students have opportunities to “generate their own texts in response to those studied” is also one I believe in passionately. However, I do worry that a minority of teachers (and remember, for many of us, studying English in college meant learning to be a literary critic – there was no creative writing element to our degree at all!) may interpret this very narrowly as meaning ‘write loads of academic essays’. One of my favourite student led projects in recent years was a ‘wife swop’ style diary blog, except it was ‘student swop’. They imagined what would happen if Juliet was transported in a time machine from 16th century Venice to 21st century Ireland and swopped places with one of the class. Then they wrote a script, filmed it and edited it. The results were comical but also insightful and imaginative. At the end of this process they each wrote an academic essay (I’ve got nothing against academic essays, I promise!) and all were of a really high standard because each of them understood what it was they were writing about on a deep and personal level. Without the project their essays would have been adequate I’m sure but neither personal nor insightful.

Perhaps there are many English teachers out there who believe that creating multimodal texts belongs not in the English classroom but should instead find a home in the short course on Digital Media literacy. But in my experience creating multimodal texts dramatically improves the quality of their more traditional academic essays. Furthermore, Digital Media Literacy remains an optional short course that many schools simply won’t opt for, particularly if they don’t have – or can’t spare – knowledgable personnel to deliver it.

Page 13 is the page that really makes my heart race, but not in a good way. We are told that “a model of rolling prescription (resembling the current model of prescription for Leaving Certificate English) will be put in place”. I fundamentally disagree with this proposition. By all means, offer a list of suggested texts but please, please, please do NOT make it prescriptive.

In case some of you out there haven’t noticed, there are a couple of significant things going on within education at the moment. No, I’m not talking about Haddington Road and pay cuts, I’m talking about a movement away from focusing on the secondary school teacher’s content knowledge (which must at all times be above reproach) and a movement towards looking at our understanding of pedagogy – not what students learn (content) but how students learn (pedagogy). We’re also now adding to the mix the pressing issue of using technology to aid students in consuming, critiquing and creating both content and understanding. (You can read more about TPACK here). This is a whole lot of change is a short space of time. Add in the new Junior Cycle key skills (where pedagogy & technology are central), the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategy, School Self-Evaluation and exploding class sizes and you’ll get a flavour of why teachers feel completely overwhelmed.


I already spend way to much of my time at senior cycle preparing new content because every year the course changes and I am back at square one consuming, critiquing and creating for novels, films, plays and poets I’ve never studied before. On the one hand you could argue that it keeps me fresh and forces me out of my comfort zone and into the role of ‘student’ repeatedly. On the other hand, it takes away from the time I’m able to devote to exploring new methodologies, new pedagogical models, new ways of doing things. It also takes away from the time I have available to devote to getting to grips with new technologies and to offering feedback to my students in Junior Cycle. If I am now going to have to change texts every year at Junior Cycle as well, I may just as well throw in the towel on new pedagogies and integrating edtech. The NCCA seem obsessed with the idea that the learning will improve if the texts keep changing – why oh why jump to that conclusion? No matter how many times I teach Romeo and Juliet it is still a towering tragedy which grips my students in a way few other texts do during their time at school and every time I teach it I teach it anew. So, my biggest most pressing request is this: offer suggested texts for the new Junior cycle. Don’t make it a prescribed list. Please?

The other major concern I have is with the specification of a minimum requirement of longer and shorter texts to be studied. The example given here is for first year students to study a minimum of:

  • two novels,
  • multiple short stories,
  • three short plays or substantial drama excerpts,
  • ten poems,
  • newspaper articles and features,
  • blogs/diaries,
  • biographical texts,
  • informative texts,
  • speeches,
  • interviews,
  • dramatic performances and
  • film

We’re also covering grammar, punctuation, spelling and structure, essay writing and advertising. Plus collaboration, communication, creativity, staying well, managing myself, managing the transition from primary to secondary school and the demands of the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategy.

I am timetabled for four classes a week with my first years. Because of cutbacks and a profound shortage of English teachers in our school (4 English teachers retired, one was replaced) we cannot implement the recommendation by the inspectorate to increase our provision to five classes a week. So I’m left with three 35minute classes and one 40minute class or 2 hours and 15 minutes a week (if they are there and not gone to a football or basketball match, or having a talk or gone on retreat or it’s the week of a bank holiday or I’m out sick). There are 33/34 weeks in the academic term. So that’s 2.15 x 33 = 74 hours approx. Now look at the list above again. Does it seem reasonable to you to ask teachers to cover all that you have listed in 74hours? Because it sounds like an insane demand to me. I’m sure I’ll find a way to do it if you tell me I have to but it will mean covering the course at a breakneck speed. Forget about depth, forget about the ‘active classroom’ with time devoted to discussions and projects and creativity. If you do this it will become a race and the students will be the first casualties.

There’s also such a thing as a teachable moment. When the Kony 2012 video exploded on youtube, I used it as an opportunity for critical analysis of online media. When Oscar Pistorius was arrested for the suspected murder of his girlfriend Reeva Steenkamp, I used it as an opportunity to discuss fallen heroes via Derek Mahon’s wonderful poem “After the Titanic”. Tomorrow at 11am my leaving certs will watch Seamus Heaney’s funeral. Now is the time to teach his poetry, now is the time for them to really grasp why it is that Heaney is trending on twitter, why it is that our entire nation is in mourning. Overload the curriculum and English teachers everywhere may decide that the luxury of embracing the teachable moment is no longer open to them when there is so much compulsory content yet to be covered.


The expectations for learners which stretch from page 15 – 22 are very clear. It is specified that students “generate their own texts” and within the term ‘text’ they include oral, visual and multimodal as well as written texts. However I can’t help but feel that multimodal and visual texts and collaboration should be making a more pronounced appearance here. In the appendix which accompanies this document, the annotated examples of student work are all written samples (and yes I know you can’t print off multimodal texts, but they could be hyperlinked in the online version?). If the examples you give are all old-school pen and paper examples then nothing will change. In fact, this document is almost apologetic for presenting the examples of students’ work in a typed format rather than photocopying something handwritten (“to ensure that individual students will not be identified the examples have been typed, but exactly as they were written”) as though it is somehow less authentic or trustworthy if it’s typed. If that is the case, perhaps once I’ve finished typing I should painstakingly hand write out this response so that the people reading it will know it’s me, a real teacher and not a robot offering this feedback on the draft specification for the Junior Cycle. Of course, this is utterly absurd and so too is insisting that students handwrite rather than type their work. In my experience, they are much more inclined to engage in a process of drafting, editing and redrafting if they can do it easily on a word processor and the quality of their work improves, in many cases, dramatically. Asking them to write with pen and paper is like asking us all to go back to the days of horse drawn carriages. If there’s a faster, better method, why would you stick with something slow and cumbersome?

I was really interested to see an asterisk beside reading strand point 6 on page 18 which states that for final assessment students will “search a range of texts, including digital texts, in order to locate information, to interpret, critically evaluate, compare, synthesise and create text”. Anyone who knows anything about digital texts, and hyperlinks and embedded video content knows that you can’t ‘print off’ a digital text and still offer it up as a genuine digital text. So the question emerges, will students soon sit exams with digital devices? Or will the examiner ‘play’ a youtube clip? He’ll have to burn it to disc because so many schools still don’t have access to youtube!

I’m also curious as to why students won’t be asked “using appropriate terminology” to asses how features of language “contribute to overall effect” in their final examination. I just wonder why this was excluded from the elements to be assessed in the final exam.


Undoubtedly the most controversial aspect of the new Junior Cycle was the unilateral decision that from now on teachers would assess their own students. I fundamentally think this is a bad idea. I have no problem working with students to prepare material for assessment. However, teachers are not robots, we are not always capable of impartial detached objectivity, particularly when it comes to students we are particularly fond of…. or not, as the case may be! We are also prone to over-valuing work ethic as opposed to natural ability, particularly if students with heaps of ability have zero work ethic. Add to the mix a few pushy helicopter parents, or teaching your neighbours kids, or your colleagues kids or your own kids, and assessing our own students gets very messy indeed. The impartiality of the current system is one of the very best aspects of it. Throwing out the proverbial baby with the dirty bathwater makes no sense at all.

I really like the addition of an oral presentation to the traditional reading and writing tasks. Big thumbs up! However, there is one sentence from page 25 that actually made me lol – it’s so blatantly a sentence from another era: students will learn basic research skills including “preparing a presentation, using props and handouts”. Hilarious. Anyone who’s ever presented knows you DO NOT GIVE YOUR AUDIENCE HANDOUTS while presenting because they read the handout instead of listening to what you’re saying. Give them one at the end by all means, but don’t distract them with it while you present. Also, props? Seriously? I have yet to see a single prop in the hands of any great modern orator, Barack Obama, Stephen Donnelly and every person who’s ever given a Ted talk included.

Plus talk of props and handouts ignores the potential of technology to make this process more appealing to students. Does a podcast count as an oral presentation? Does a poetry reading? What about a reading of a poem you’ve written yourself? What if you’ve written song lyrics? Could you sing a song you’d written? Can you make a youtube video and submit this as an ‘oral presentation’? If you are chronically shy, can you record your presentation in the comfort of your own home, re-recording until you’re happy with it? Would this count? Could you record yourself, just audio, reading the presentation and use this recording to help you learn it off before delivering it to your peers? I used to do that when I was performing in a play and had loads of lines to learn. I guess what I’m saying is that I’d just like more clarity here.

The section on personal writing on page 25 also specifies that “trying things out, revising and polishing for publication”… “is best done over time, with supportive feedback and scaffolding from the teacher” (my emphasis). First of all, why are peer feedback and assessment not making an appearance here? Secondly, please refer to my previous comment about the number of students secondary level teachers teach and the explosion in class sizes. Now let me simplify it even further for you: to give each pupil I teach 10 minutes individualised feedback a week:

200 x 10 = 2000 mins or 33hrs 20 mins

Experienced teachers know that you can’t really offer this during class time – once the roll is done and an activity started (and this is assuming you don’t do any whole class teaching) you’d get around to 3 pupils maximum. That means neglecting 90% of the class while giving your attention to 10%. To assess and offer feedback on one piece of work would then take up ten class periods but to cover the curriculum you’d need to have long moved on from whatever that exercise was before ten classes had passed.

So my job starts to look like this:

22 hrs class teaching,
33 hrs corrections (but in reality, senior cycle essays take about 25mins to correct not 10 mins)
12 hrs class preparation (many weeks this is a vast underestimation)
5 hrs subject department/croke park/school self evaluation/literacy and numeracy/ICT
3 hrs extra-curricular
75 hour working week

Anyone who knows anything about me at all knows that I am a complete workaholic, but even I know this isn’t healthy.

The critical reading element offers a very dull interpretation of what is possible – the draft spec says that students will complete exercises such as “key moments create different/similar feelings in me; I prefer this character because; this beginning/ending appeals more to me; I prefer this style of writing”. I’m yawning just reading it. It reminds me of a tweet I read recently:

I’m so proud of my worksheets‘, said no student ever.

However, I do like the sentence which states that “these activites will provide opportunities for different kinds of student output”. There seems to be scope here to create the kind of multimodal texts which give students the opportunity to really dig deep into characters, their relationships and the cultural context of the texts they are studying. It also means, in my experience, that their “written personal reflection on the critical reading of texts for summative assessment” is genuinely of a high quality and genuinely personal.

For assessment purposes, I think there needs to be a limit to the amount of times a teacher ‘corrects’ a students work. It’s extremely important that the work remains the work of the student in question. As a teacher I am guilty of acting like a literary editor for my students, re-writing sentences so they sound better, correcting spelling mistakes, crossing out words and offering more accurate synonyms. It’s all a bit stupid really – I am wasting my time because in my heart I know they don’t learn to be a better writer by watching me be a better writer. Yes I’m good at English, I’d want to be, I’m a bloody English teacher. But at what point does an essay or short story or newspaper article stop being the students’ work and start being some weird hybrid of teacher and student? This is particularly a concern where the aim of the exercise becomes to just drag weaker/lazy students over the line so that they pass. Surely all students learn in this circumstance is “if I don’t do the work someone else will step in and do it for me”. Hardly character building, is it?

Finally two more things. “Reporting to parents” p24 implies what? We’ve got parent-teacher meetings. Are you suggesting something else? Something more?

And all of the annotated examples specify that the writing takes place at home, for homework. Does this not come with a danger that you simply cement mistakes and/or encourage writer’s block?  I know motivation and focus in class can be an issue but at least if students are working on something during class, the teacher and their peers are there to help them when they get stuck and to answer questions when something needs to be clarified?

To conclude, with seven hours of my weekend now gone (I told you I was a workaholic), I like the draft specification for the most part. The time, effort and care that’s gone in to it is everywhere evident and if at times I came across as a sarky whinger, I apologise. But this document will be pivotal for those of us on the ground for years to come and so I am glad to have this opportunity to offer my – extremely detailed, nay longwinded – two cents. I acknowledge it’d have been more useful a few months ago, but better late than never, eh?


Evelyn O’Connor
English Teacher.


Filter Bubbles

Filter bubbles exist when we are fed only the info that we want to see and read, the views and content that interests us and corresponds with our view of the world.


If I use facebook, I’m only going to be exposed to posts by my friends and family. So let’s say they’ve all got bad grammar? Then I’m going to end up drowning in a sea of sentence fragments, poor spelling and indiscriminate mis-use of your / you’re / there / their / they’re. The danger is that this becomes so ‘normal’ to me that eventually I won’t even notice it. Perhaps it’s ALWAYS been normal to me, in which case good grammar, and an emphasis on the importance of good grammar at school will baffle me completely.

Or let’s say I want to search for something on the internet. If I happen to be logged in to gmail or youtube when I do my search, when I google something I’ll get personalised results. Instead of just getting the results which are most relevant to my search terms, the search will also take into account my location, previous search terms, the websites I most frequently visit etc.

The problem with filter bubbles in general is that we are less likely to be exposed to viewpoints which disagree with our view of the world, with our sense of ‘normal’.

filiter bubble comment

Filter bubbles aren’t new and they aren’t limited to the internet. My sister works in theatre in London and joked on a visit home recently that every single person she works with reads the Guardian. This means she gets a very liberal view of the world both from the people she works with (they’re all in theatre daahling so theoretically they ‘all’ support funding for the arts, gay marriage, a woman’s right to choose and wealth taxes) and from what she reads (the Guardian writers are pretty much the same as the theatre buffs in their political viewpoint). To balance out her world view, she’s started buying the Telegraph just so she can read opposing opinions to her own (she can’t quite bring herself to buy the Daily Mail, bless her. For more on newspapers and their political stance see here and here).

But let me repeat, in case you missed it the first time: filter bubbles aren’t new. Every child grows up in a household which is in itself a filter bubble. If I grow up surrounded by books and people who enjoy reading, then to me that’s normal. If I overhear and/or participate in conversations where the speakers use sophisticated vocabulary and express their opinions without fear of censure or ridicule, just a healthy level of debate, then that will also seem ‘normal’ to me. If healthy eating and participation in sport are a given in my household, then in most (but not all) cases, the kids who emerge from this household will also place a value on reading, conversation, healthy eating and sport (at least that’s what I’m hoping for in the case of my lil daughter!).

I had the depressing experience recently where we were reading an article in class and I asked the students to highlight any words they didn’t understand and promised I’d explain them once we finished reading the article. I ended up feeling like I was translating a passage of French. I wasn’t angry with my students; it’s not their fault if their vocabulary is limited, any more than it’s my fault if I’m not a trained ballet dancer. They live in a digital era where reading levels are plummeting and where casual spoken language (texting, youtube, facebook) dominates.

But it scared me. A lot. Our entire education system is built on a foundation which demands the ability to read, understand, interpret and respond to complex written data and information. Writing is more complex than speech, it demands greater sophistication of thought and expression. Without the precise words to capture, express and interrogate our reality, we cannot truly understand the world. And we certainly cannot succeed in the Leaving Cert.

Anyway, all of this brings me in a roundabout way to this warning. This website is in itself a filter bubble. It gives you one teacher’s perspective on Leaving Cert English. If you assimilated everything that’s on this site I have no doubt that it would assist you in achieving a good grade in Leaving Cert English.

However, I do worry sometimes when I overhear students’ conversations at school. If you’ll allow me to grossly over-generalise for a moment, students these days are OBSESSED with the ‘right’ way of approaching an exam question. They are OBSESSED with the idea that there is one revision book, or one website, or one disgustingly overpriced completely passive Easter revision course which will magically lead them to the mythical A1 standard sample answer for every possible exam question that could possibly come up in every single one of their subjects and all they need to do is learn them all off by heart and before you know it they have 600 points and a prestigious college course and a job for life and all the happiness in the universe guaranteed for life.

This is an illusion.

Take for example the topics I’ve covered for Macbeth – his soliloquies, his relationship with his wife, Kingship, imagery and the various outside influences on Macbeth’s decisions and behaviour. However, if you look at the list of common questions which come up on Macbeth, you’ll notice you also need to be able to verbalise your levels of sympathy for Macbeth and for his wife Lady Macbeth; you need to understand Banquo’s character and his role as a foil to Macbeth; you must have a detailed knowledge of the role and function of the Witches in the drama; which in itself leads into a more general discussion of the theme of the supernatural in the play; you may be asked to discuss good versus evil or any variation of that issue including your interpretation of the depiction of human beings offered by Shakespeare or a focus purely on the good characters who oppose Macbeth; you’ve got the theme of appearance vs reality; the relevance of the play to a modern audience and the question of what makes the entire play (or just one individual scene) compelling drama.

These are just the questions which have come up previously on Macbeth. We might see a new question we’ve never seen before. I’m not telling you this to freak you out – if anything I think the depth and scope of what you’re supposed to know is mind-boggling to the extent of being laughable, almost absurd. And if you are freaking out reading this, read this right now to get some perspective. With all due respect it’s only the leaving cert, it’s not life or death.

So don’t rely exclusively on what I’ve covered on the site. I’ve tried to be as exhaustive as I can, particularly for Paper 1, but I can’t predict the paper. I don’t have any spidey-tingly-feeling-in-my-bones about what might come up. I never offer predictions nor should you ever listen to them. If you cut the course and take short cuts because time and desperation demand it, that’s your decision, and hopefully it will work out for you.

But if it bites you on the ass,don’t cast around for people to blame, as thousands of students did last year when neither Heaney nor Plath were on the paper. Be pissed off if a poet you like doesn’t come up, but don’t be ‘outraged’ or ‘shocked’ or ‘appalled’.

And if you’re on twitter or facebook the night before the exams and people are offering predictions, remember, that is your filter bubble and you need to remember that when people tell you that they know what’s coming up, like all filter bubblers, they are just telling you what you want to hear, rather than something which is true.


7 Fixable Follies

Following our mocks, I made a list of avoidable errors that I come across again and again and again. Here are some of them, alongside some links and suggestions to help you sort them out.

PROBLEM 1 = Mis-read the question

SOLUTION = Underline the key words in the question. Still confused? Re-write the question in your own words to clarify what you’re being asked. If you still don’t understand the question, try to avoid it. Pick a different one if possible.

PROBLEM 2 = mis-use apostrophes

SOLUTION =  learn these simple rules.  Use apostrophes:

1. to show that something BELONGS to someone (possessive nouns)

2. to show a letter is missing because you squished 2 words together (contraction)

NEVER USE APOSTROPHES TO MAKE A WORD PLURAL! If the word is already plural, add the apostrophe after the s (no need to have two s’s in a row!). eg “The three dogs’ bowls were empty” is better than “The three dogs’s bowls were empty”

NEVER USE APOSTROPHES WITH HIS / HERS / ITS – ownership is already clear e.g. “It’s not his, it’s hers” – here it’s means it is

e.g. “Its only difficulty as an organisation is that it’s too trusting” – here the difficulty belongs to it (the organisation) but for ITS you don’t need to indicate possession. Only use an apostrophe with its is when it means “It is” e.g. “it’s raining”

To practice using apostrophes correctly, click here http://www.chompchomp.com/exercises.htm#Apostrophes

PROBLEM 3 = spelling errors

SOLUTION = Create a personal dictionary. List all the words you have misspelled over the last two years. Write each word out ten times correctly.

It can help to break the word into sections.
If a word is particularly difficult, you can come up with a mnemonic (a memory trigger) to help you remember it. eg. Accommodation – two c’s, two m’s, three o’s– ooo, Carla Colley and Mark Madden shared accommodation in the hotel!

Get someone to test your spellings or try this method below to test yourself.  You’ll need a blank sheet of paper to test your spelling.  LOOK – SAY – COVER – WRITE – CHECK

For more tips check out www.spellzone.com

PROBLEM 4 = poor punctuation and sentence control leading to run-on lines, sentence fragments, comma splices and fused sentences.

SOLUTION = this is hard to fix.

A sentence expresses a complete thought. It contains a subject, a verb and a main clause (central idea in the sentence). Sentences can be simple or complex but you CANNOT keep adding on extra sub-clauses endlessly (using “and” “because” “as well as”). These afterthoughts tell the reader that you cannot control your sentences and create the impression that you don’t really know what you’re trying to say.

Too many short sentences will make your writing seem childish.
Too many long complex sentences in a row make it hard to follow (particularly when writing a speech). Practice identifying fragments at www.chompchomp.com

If you ask a question, include a ? mark. You need to understand the difference between using a comma (please pause here) and using a full stop (this idea is over).

PROBLEM 5 = lack of flow

SOLUTION = practice using these connectives in your writing

  • To qualify a statement you’ve just made use: although, unless, except, despite, yet, nonetheless.
  • To show cause and effect: because, therefore, thus, as a result, stemming from this, as a direct consequence
  • To emphasise: above all, particularly, obviously, clearly
  • To illustrate: for example, including, such as, for instance, in this case
  • To compare / contrast: similarly, likewise, equally, instead of, by contrast
  • To add an idea: also, as well as, moreover, additionally, furthermore
  • To indicate time: firstly, secondly, lastly, next, then, finally, meanwhile, whenever, until, immediately, afterwards, later, earlier
  • To indicate position: within, outside, throughout, beyond, among, beneath, furthermore, in the foreground, in the background, left of centre, right of centre, the focus is on…
  • To sum up: finally, let me finish by saying, lastly, in conclusion, ultimately

PROBLEM 6 = floating quotes

SOLUTION = integrate quotes. Watch this video  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P6sTsl4ovgM or follow the rules below which derive from the video:

METHOD 1:Introduce the quotation with a statement and a colon – Jones uses statistics to convince us that smoking is a major health concern: “78% of smokers die prematurely”. NEVER insert a quotation as a stand-alone sentence.

METHOD 2: Introduce the quotation with the writer’s name: As Jones observes, “78% of smokers die prematurely”. (Or instead of observes use describes/ illustrates / argues)

METHOD 3: Blend the quote into your own sentence (this is the best method) – It is profoundly shocking to think that I could be one of the “78% of smokers [who] die prematurely” and reading this article has certainly made me rethink my habits.

PROBLEM 7 = casual language, cliches and slang. 

Those who don’t read a lot suffer from this affliction and frequently struggle to use language appropriate to the written word. Often it sounds like they are ‘speaking’ to you from the page.

This results in long slang-infested often incoherent sentences, with several sub-clauses, a lack of full stops and other punctuation and ideas which are added on at the last minute and sometimes other vague stuff which make the sentence hard to follow and it becomes very irritating for the reader. You get the idea!

SOLUTION = First of all, just be aware that there’s a difference between spoken and written language. Or as the UEFAP website expresses it: “Written language is relatively more complex than spoken language. Written language has longer words, it is lexically more dense and it has a more varied vocabulary. Academic writing is relatively formal. In general this means that in an essay you should avoid colloquial words and expressions”.

Look at the way language changes depending on the context by doing these exercises: http://www.uefap.com/writing/feature/intro/intro.htm and try this one http://www.uefap.com/writing/feature/featfram.htm to practice formal writing.